Middle East today still remains as one of the zones of chaos. Unfortunately, lots of conflictcs, civil war, Arab Spring and terrorist organizations continue there. Also, North African countries were affected by Arab Spring, we should not forget that most of the North African Countries are Berbers so Arabs. Now i would like to talk about one person who gained high reputation for his country and tried to get out of Egypt from zone of chaos he is Anwar Sadat.
Sadat was born in Monufia, Egypt in 25 december 1918. He graduated from Royal Military Academy in Cairo in 1938. During the Second World War he was imprisoned by British forces for trying to get help from pro-Axis forces. In Wikipedia, it is also noted that he took part in several movements such as Muslim Brotherhood and Young Fascist Party. There was a deep hatred towards Britain, because Egypt was Britain’s procterate and had deep influence on their internal and external policies. Basically, we can call, king Farouk II as a puppet leader. Also, defeat of Egypt to Israel in 1948 war angered lots of Egyptians and king’s image was damaged significantly. Sadat joined to Free Officers movement in which Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser were leading figures. In 1952, Free Officers overthrow King Farouk II and they abolished monarchy in 1953 and republic was created. In 1954, Anwar Sadat was appointed as Minister of State. He worked twice as vice-president during nationalist, pan-arabist and great person Nasser’s presidency. In 1970, Nasser suddenly died and in 1971 Anwar Sadat was appointed as the new president of Egypt.
It was strange that Sadat did not follow Nasser and tried to change Egypt’s direction in international politics. Anwar Sadat offered a peaceful solution if Israel returned Sinai peninsula which they invaded in Six Day War in 1967. Unsurprisingly, Israel rejected this proposal and after that Sadat’s Egypt and Syria launched surprise attack on Israel. It was a shock for Israel, they were not beaten completely, because Israel’s counterattack was good, but both sides came to agreement for peace. It is important to note that America’s stance in this conflict played a major role. Nixon and Kissinger did not directly support Israel in this case, as they thought another Israel victory can cause further turmoil in Middle East. So, final peace agreement was signed in 1978 in Washington and it was a first peace treaty which was signed by Arab State and Israel. They recognized each other and it was a big preliminary stage for sustaining peace in this territory. Also, Egypt got Sinai Peninsula back and it was first time that any Arab state could get a lost territory from Israel. Both Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin were awarded Nobel Peace Prize. Sadat was first Muslim to get this Peace award and also first Arab leader to visit Israel. This peace increased Sadat’s and Egypt’s reputation in international arena and despite getting Sinai back, some ultra-religious movements and serious opposition occured against Anwar Sadat.
Sadat’s one of the reforms in the economy was his Intifah policy which allowed to privatization and foreign investment, it was a call for Western path, but unfortunately, it did not work at that time well, because there was an inflation in the country and led to the food riots in the January of 1977.
Sadat reduced ties with USSR, because USSR was unwilling and hesitating to offer military support for Egypt. After that Anwar Sadat took encouraing steps against USSR and expelled USSR military from his country and reformed his army. Also, Sadat began to purge important Nasserist members including vice president Ali Sabri and the Interior Minister Sharawy Gomaa who controlled secret police. Sadat reduced the power of secret police and imprisoned Islamists and liberals. Sadat weakened Soviet power in his country and changed its direction. All of his reforms were made under Corrective Revolution which was launched in 1971.
The relations between Iran and Egypt also recovered and Shah Reza Pehlevi and Anwar Sadat became close friends.
1981 was a year full of internal turmoil. A failed coup attempt happened in June 1981 and Sadat began to imprison opposition figures. But there was a strong dissent against Sadat in the country due to his policies and especially the peace treaty with Israel angered Islamists. In october 6, during the parade in which Egypt’s army was crossing Suez Canal, Anwar Sadat was assassinated by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli. Several people were injured including vice-president Hosni Mobarek who would become one of the next Egypt presidents for a long time until being overthrown during Arab Spring.
He wanted to improve the economy of Egypt by his intifah policy. He also increased the reputation of Egypt in international arena by demonstrating its military strength. He finally reached peace with Israel in order to end chaos in his country. These were considerable achievements and success Anwar Sadat deserve most credit for that. He was a great leader who saw the root of the problems and wanted to sole it by bringing direct solutions, unfortunately, he was killed by Islamist and Egypt did not become a peceful place after that also.
It is important to reach peace in Middle East, today we hear lots of people die because of the terrorist attacks and suicide bombings, Middle East is still a zone of chaos, hopefully smart leaders like Anwar Sadat will come to the presidencies and to try find solutions and peace in order to stop conflicts. Peace with Israel is necessarry for sustaining economic growth and political strenght also Iran is a Muslim country and Muslim World should not be divided so deeply, they should cooperate together for common goals. They should be friends, not foes.